Without first nations’ willing participation, however,it’s extremely unlikely to succeed. That’s not a bad thing. First nations are deeply concerned about environmental risks; their engagement will help ensure the highest standards of safety,security and emergency responsiveness. They also know only too well that properly managed resource developments, including pipelines,offer the best solution to the employment and governance challenges they face. First nations have a judicially and politically recognized voice now in resource development,and they’re using it with increasing effectiveness.