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Sunday, November 02, 2008

A city built on graves: Ancient aboriginal burial site largely forgotten as Orillia grew


Posted 18 hours ago

Lying forgotten under seven city blocks is a vast burial ground where the bodies of men, women and children rested for centuries, each one buried in a sitting position, facing east toward the rising sun.

The graves, believed to contain the remains of Algonquin people, were discovered along Mount Slaven Creek between what is now O'Brien Street and Westmount Drive in the 1870s, when the area was still a wooded expanse outside the city limits.

Orillia judge J. Hugh Hammond wrote more than a century ago about digging up bodies and artifacts along the creek as a youngster.

"In the early seventies (1870s) as a schoolboy I spent the greater part of some Saturdays and holidays with my playmates in excavating Indian graves on the lots north of the extension of Mississaga Street, on Mount Slaven, near Orillia Town. Our schoolmaster (Samuel McIlvaine) urged us to make available collections of any objects such as beads, wampum and the like."

Hammond, whose account is quoted by historian Andrew Hunter in his 1903 study of 32 Indian villages in the Orillia area, gave a detailed description of the site.

"The graves were single and extended in long lines from the bank of the creek toward the hillside at the Coldwater Road, in a northwesterly direction. All of the bodies were buried in a sitting position, facing the east or morning sun."

The lines of graves were about six metres apart, said Hammond, who drew a map in a notebook, showing more than 100 Xs where graves had been found running in lines from Mississaga Street northwest across Mary and John streets. The map also indicates the locations of ashpits and notes the character of the soil.

Digging around the bodies, Hammond found bugle-shaped beads, arrowheads, spear points and wampum -- coin-shaped discs with holes drilled in the centre. In one grave, a black, bird-shaped amulet was found around the neck of a skeleton of a very large man.

"The lower jaw bone of this body was in place and I tried it over my own head and face and it passed clear of my face without touching it at any place."

French iron axes from the 1600s indicate the site was inhabited after Samuel de Champlain and French priests arrived in the area, beginning in 1615.

Copper kettles and knife blades and hatchets were also unearthed.

Hunter concluded the site, roughly 27 hectares in size, was an Algonquin settlement, probably used in the winter when the community migrated south from hunting grounds north of the Severn River.

The creek would have provided plentiful fresh water and the hill rising to the northwest protection from the wind.

Most of the 500 native settlements identified between Orillia and Midland are Huron, but the Algonquin territory to the north and east merged with the Huron lands in the Orillia area.

The Hurons grew crops such as corn and beans and tended to be more sedentary than the Algonquins.

Hurons typically placed their dead on scaffolds and later buried the bones following Feasts of the Dead in large pits called ossuaries.

Algonquins, a more nomadic people, were more likely to bury their dead in individual graves. Two bone pits were also uncovered on the site. The first was found in 1870 at the base of a pine tree and the other, containing 10 skeletons, was exposed in 1902 when a loton Mary Street was being levelled.

The combination of individual graves and bone pits could mean Hurons and Algonquins occupied the same site at different times or the burial customs were blending through the association of the two allied nations.

"There would have been cross-cultural influences," says John Raynor, an avocational a

While archeologists and historians are aware of the Mount Slaven site, it was largely forgotten as the city

Skulls dug up by crews laying a sewer on Mary Street in Orillia in the 1930s, displayed on a fence in the neighbourhood, are shown in the top photo from Orillia museum archives. The lower photo shows Lines of Xs on this map, drawn by hand in 1904 by amateur archeologist J. Hugh Hammond, show the location of bodies, believed to be Algonquin aboriginals.

grew out over the site, block by block.

There are no markers or plaques and the burial ground is not identified in the city's official plan or defined on municipal maps. In fact, none of 32 sites inhabited by the Huron and Algonquin in Orillia and the immediate area have been located on municipal maps or marked with historical plaques.

Since digging up graves and making off with the artifacts was common practice for decades through the latter part of the 1800s and early 1900s and no effort was made to preserve the integrity of each site, it's impossible to know how many burials escaped the predations of curiosity seekers.

What became of most of the pottery, pipes, jewelry, stone and metal weaponry, kettles, axe heads and other artifacts unearthed over the years is also unknown. There were no local museums and no one to place private collections into any kind of historical context.

Marcel Rousseau, a local history buff, wonders if the Mount Slaven site was the lost village of Contarea.

This native community somewhere near present-day Orillia repelled the Jesuits in the early 1600s, spurning Christianity as the work of the devil.

It was attacked by the Iroquois in 1641 and disappeared from the historical record, said Raynor.

Fraser Irvine, whose Mary Street home backs onto the creek, was astonished to learn the Algonquins had a settlement literally in his backyard and buried their dead where lawns and gardens now slope down to the water course.

"That's amazing. Just amazing," said Irvine, looking at Hammond's hand-drawn map from 1904. "I'm right smack dab in the middle of it. Nobody said anything about it."

In the four years he's lived beside the creek, Irvine has never dug down very far anywhere in the yard.

"I'd like to get a team in here and root around," he says. "That stuff fascinates me. You never know what you'd find."

The urge to satisfy curiosity is a double-edged sword, says Gloria Taylor, curator of the Orillia Museum of Art and History.

While the careful and respectful exploration of historic native settlements can yield valuable historical information, there is a risk sites can be ransacked by novelty seekers.

And often it has been the wish of First Nations that burial grounds be left undisturbed.

So the location of many archeological sites has been kept under wraps somewhat, said Taylor.

"The province didn't want places identified too closely for fear of grave-robbing."

But the protective secrecy can result in communities such as those in the old west ward of Orillia living in total ignorance of the history literally lying under their feet.

There needs to be better communication between the province where archeological finds are registered and municipalities where many of these sites are found, says Taylor.

Orillia Packet and Times

Article ID# 1276720 *****

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My Canada includes rights of Indigenous Peoples.

Two Row Wampum Treaty

Two Row Wampum Treaty
"It is said that, each nation shall stay in their own vessels, and travel the river side by side. Further, it is said, that neither nation will try to steer the vessel of the other." This is a treaty among Indigenous Nations, and with Canada. This is the true nature of our relationships with Indigenous Nations of 'Kanata'.